Network Routing

Introduction

Comparison between Distance-Vector and Link-State Protocols (source)

Distance Vector (DV) Routing Protocols

Route Selection

DV can select either the upper path or the bottom path to forward packets
(a) upper path from EdgeRouter1 → CoreRouter1 → Core Router2 → EdgeRouter2(b) bottom path from EdgeRouter1 → CoreRouter3 → CoreRouter4 →CoreRouter5 → EdgeRouter2
Total Hop Count=1
Total Hop Count=2
DV choose the path with least hop counts; here, the blue path (with 3 hops) is selected compared to the green path (with 4 hops)

Topology View

Routers only exchange routing tables with the adjacent routers in DV; in context of Router1

Routes Update (Table Exchange)

Routing Table Updates in Distance Vector Protocol; Routers forward packet to the next hop that has the less hop count leading to the destination networks

Timers in RIPv1

Router A, B, C are all configured with RIPv1

Time Point [1]

RouterC updates its routing table when the port connecting to RouterA is broken

Time Point [2]

RouterA updates its routing table after being informed that Link RouterA →RouterC is down
RouterB did not make any changes to its routing table since the link RouterA →RouterC is not in its table
RouterA updates its routing table to add the new path to LAN3 via RouterB
RouterC updates its routing table to add the new path to LAN1 via RouterB

Time Point [3]

RouterA →RouterC route is flagged as unusable
RouterC →RouterA route is flagged as unusable

Time Point [4]

Updated RouterA’s Table after 300s
Updated RouterC’s Table after 300s
3 important timer in RIPv1; one cycle (from a bad path detection to removal) take 300s

Network Performance

(A) Speed — Routing Table Convergence

(B) Lightweight — Resources Utilisation

(C) Speed — Packet Forwarding

Is shorter path better or faster path better?

(D) Simplicity — Ease of Configurations

4 configurations line to configure RIPv1 for 2 networks (source)

NEXT: Link State Protocol

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